Biofunctional Hyaluronic Acid/κ-Carrageenan Injectable Hydrogels for Improved Drug Delivery and Wound Healing

The in situ injectable hydrogel system offers a widespread range of biomedical applications in prompt chronic wound treatment and management, as it provides self-healing, maintains a moist wound microenvironment, and offers good antibacterial properties.
This study aimed to develop and evaluate biopolymer-based thermoreversible injectable hydrogels for effective wound-healing applications and the controlled drug delivery of meropenem. The injectable hydrogel was developed using the solvent casting method and evaluated for structural changes using proton nuclear magnetic resonance, Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy.
The results indicated the self-assembly of hyaluronic acid and kappa-carrageenan and the thermal stability of the fabricated injectable hydrogel with tunable gelation properties.
The viscosity assessment indicated the in-situ gelling ability and injectability of the hydrogels at various temperatures. The fabricated hydrogel was loaded with meropenem, and the drug release from the hydrogel in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) with a pH of 7.4 was 96.12%, and the simulated wound fluid with a pH of 6.8 was observed to be at 94.73% at 24 h, which corresponds to the sustained delivery of meropenem. Antibacterial studies on P. aeruginosaS. aureus, and E. coli with meropenem-laden hydrogel showed higher zones of inhibition.
The in vivo studies in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats presented accelerated healing with the drug-loaded injectable hydrogel, while 90% wound closure with the unloaded injectable hydrogel, 70% in the positive control group (SC drug), and 60% in the negative control group was observed (normal saline) after fourteen days. In vivo wound closure analysis confirmed that the developed polymeric hydrogel has synergistic wound-healing potential.

Effect of κ-carrageenan on the gelation properties of oyster protein

Proteins and polysaccharides commonly coexist in the food system, forming complexes and coacervates to make tailor-made food. In this study, the effects of κ-carrageenan on the rheological behavior, network structure, textures, and molecular force of oyster protein (OP treated with high-pressure homogenization were investigated.
Rheological results showed that κ-carrageenan improved the storage modulus of OP, and the higher concentration of κ-carrageenan accelerated the gelation of OP.
The second derivative of infrared spectroscopy revealed that κ-carrageenan contributed to the formation of β-sheet in OP. Molecular force and texture analysis showed that κ-carrageenan might promote the increase of hydrophobic bonds and disulfide bonds, which was helpful to enhance gel strength.
The microstructure showed that the OP gel with 1.5% κ-carrageenan had a compact network structure with abundant minor mesh and sheet edge. This study reveals the gelation mechanism of OP/κ-carrageenan and provides the theoretical basis for developing innovative oyster products.

Efficacy of a carrageenan gel in increasing clearance of anal HPV infections in men: interim analysis of a double-blind randomized controlled trial

Pre-clinical studies demonstrated carrageenan’s anti-human papillomavirus (HPV) activity. We assessed efficacy of a carrageenan-based gel compared to a placebo gel in increasing the clearance of anal HPV infections among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (gbMSM).
Of 255 enrolled gbMSM, 134 were HPV-positive at baseline and had valid HPV results for ≥2 visits. Carrageenan did not differ from placebo in clearing all baseline infections (HR=0.84, 95% CI: 0.31-2.27), based on having two consecutive HPV-negative visits following at least one HPV-positive. There were no remarkable differences for analyses at the HPV-type level or by HIV status.

Combination of Colchicine and Ticagrelor Inhibits Carrageenan-Induced Thrombi in Mice

The formation of a thrombus is closely related to oxidative stress and inflammation. Colchicine is one of the most commonly prescribed medication for gout treatment, with anti-inflammation and antioxidative stress properties. Therefore, we speculated that it is possible for colchicine to treat thrombosis.
In this study, we used carrageenan to induce thrombosis in BALB/c mice and fed mice with colchicine, ticagrelor, and their combination, respectively. We found colchicine inhibited carrageenan-induced thrombi in mouse tail, and the inhibition was enhanced by ticagrelor. 
In vitro, colchicine inhibited thrombin-induced retraction of human platelet clots. Mechanically, colchicine inhibited platelet activation by reducing the expression of platelet receptors, protease-activated receptor 4 (PAR4) and CD36, and inactivating of AKT and ERK1/2 pathways.
Furthermore, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), colchicine showed antioxidative stress effects through increasing protein expression of glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1), and mRNA levels of forkhead box O3 (FOXO3a) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2). In RAW264.7 cells, colchicine reduced LPS-enhanced inflammatory response through attenuating toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation.
In addition, colchicine reduced LPS or ox-LDL-induced monocyte adhesion to HUVECs by inhibiting intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) levels. Taken together, our study demonstrates that colchicine exerts antithrombotic function by attenuating platelet activation and inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammation. We also provide a potential new strategy for clinical treatment.

Thermal and acidic denaturation of phycocyanin from Arthrospira platensis: Effects of complexation with λ-carrageenan on blue color stability

The pH and temperature sensitivity of the natural blue pigment phycocyanin from Arthrospira platensis limits its application as food colorant. This study examines the effect of protein stabilization by the anionic polysaccharide λ-carrageenan on phycocyanins color appearance at pH 2.5-6.0, unheated and after heat treatments (70/90 °C). Electrostatic interactions, hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonds and disulfide-bridges were assessed by adding NaCl, urea and dithiothreitol (DTT) to the samples.
Measurements of the zeta potential, transmittance and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry confirmed electrostatic interactions around the zero surface charge of phycocyanin over a broad pH range (∼4.1-6.4). Despite a color shift towards turquoise, the color remained stable during heating, especially below of pH 3.5.
Precipitation was inhibited over the entire pH range. Overall, electrostatic complexation of phycocyanin and λ-carrageenan is a promising technique to stabilize proteinaceous colorants, helping to reduce food waste and foster a shift to renewable materials.

Spray-drying microencapsulation of tea extracts using green starch, alginate or carrageenan as carrier materials

Tea industry generates many by-products which could be used to produce and incorporate bioactive tea extracts (TE) into nutraceuticals, cosmetics and/or clinical applications. However, sensibility to external factors is a major disadvantage hindering its utilization.
This study deals with the implementation and characterization of suitable biopolymer delivery systems based on starch, carrageenan or alginate, as microencapsulation, to stabilize and protect TE through innovative thin-carbohydrate-coated formulations.

Carrageenan

from Bio Basic
CN1138 | 500g: 84.80 EUR

kappa-Carrageenan

from Glentham Life Sciences
GC6839-100G | 100 g: 62.00 EUR

kappa-Carrageenan

from Glentham Life Sciences
GC6839-1KG | 1 kg: 225.00 EUR

kappa-Carrageenan

from Glentham Life Sciences
GC6839-250G | 250 g: 94.00 EUR

kappa-Carrageenan

from Glentham Life Sciences
GC6839-25G | 25 g: 43.00 EUR

kappa-Carrageenan

from Glentham Life Sciences
GC6839-500G | 500 g: 142.00 EUR

iota-Carrageenan, Type II

from Glentham Life Sciences
GC3873-100G | 100 g: 60.00 EUR

iota-Carrageenan, Type II

from Glentham Life Sciences
GC3873-250G | 250 g: 91.00 EUR

iota-Carrageenan, Type II

from Glentham Life Sciences
GC3873-25G | 25 g: 44.00 EUR

Moss (Seaweeds Plant) gelatin (type A), Carrageenan

from Alpha Diagnostics
GELM13-N-10 | 10 g: 103.00 EUR
TE were spray-dried and microencapsulated in recycled carrier materials (alginate, carrageenan or starch). Product yields varied from 55 to 58%. High microencapsulation and loading efficiencies were achieved (60-93% and 65-84%, respectively). Antioxidant capacity varied from 32 to 46 g Trolox/100 g extract, within different carrier-systems; which also showed promising rheological and UV-protective properties when transformed into gels. Total phenolic content, particle-size distribution, HPSEC-analysis, SEM-analysis and FTIR-analysis were also performed.
In sum, this paper characterizes and discusses the high potential of these recycled carbohydrate-coated microparticles for future applications.