The resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antibiotics is multi factorial and complex. Whereas efflux pumps such as MexAB-OprM have been thought to predominate, here we show that a novel ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter that mediates influx of carbenicillin from the periplasm to the cytoplasm and away from its cell wall target plays an important role in the resistance of P. aeruginosa to this antibiotic.
Treatment of P. aeruginosa with verapamil, an inhibitor of ABC transporters in eukaryotic cells, increases its sensitivity to carbenicillin.
Using amino acid sequence homology with known verapamil protein targets as a probe, we determined that the PA1113 gene product, an ABC transporter, mediates carbenicillin uptake into the bacterial cytoplasm.
Docking and pharmacological analyses showed that verapamil and carbenicillin compete for the same site on the PA1113 gene protein, explaining the inhibitory effect of verapamil on carbenicillin uptake, and furthermore suggest that the PA1113 ABC transporter accounts for about 30% of P. aeruginosa carbenicillin resistance.
Our findings demonstrate that the PA1113 gene product helps mediate carbenicillin resistance by transporting it away from its cell wall target and represents a promising new therapeutic target.
MexXY RND pump of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA7 effluxes bi-anionic β-lactams carbenicillin and sulbenicillin when it partners with the outer membrane factor OprA but not with OprM
Antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a serious concern in healthcare systems. Among the determinants of antibiotic resistance in P. aeruginosa, efflux pumps belonging to the resistance-nodulation-division (RND) family confer resistance to a broad range of antibacterial compounds.
The MexXY efflux system is widely overexpressed in P. aeruginosa isolates from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. MexXY can form functional complexes with two different outer membrane factors (OMFs), OprA and OprM. In this study, using state-of-the-art genetic tools, the substrate specificities of MexXY-OprA and MexXY-OprM complexes were determined.
Our results show, for the first time, that the substrate profile of the MexXY system from P. aeruginosa PA7 can vary depending on which OM factor (OprM or OprA) it complexes with. While both MexXY-OprA and MexXY-OprM complexes are capable of effluxing aminoglycosides, the bi-anionic β-lactam molecules carbenicillin and sulbenicillin were found to only be the substrate of MexXY-OprA. Our study therefore shows that by partnering with different OMF proteins MexY can expand its substrate profile.
Octenidine/carbenicillin GUMBOS as potential treatment for oropharyngeal gonorrhoea
Background: Reducing Neisseria gonorrhoeae colonies in the oropharynx is a viable solution to minimize the transmission of this bacterium amongst individuals.
Objectives: A strategy involving the electrostatic interaction between a common antiseptic and a discontinued antibiotic (i.e. octenidine and carbenicillin) was evaluated as a potential treatment for gonorrhoea. Octenidine/carbenicillin is a novel group of uniform materials based on organic salts (GUMBOS) with inherent in vitro antibacterial activity that comes from its parent antiseptic and antibacterial ions, octenidine and carbenicillin, respectively.
Methods: Antibacterial activities for octenidine dihydrochloride, disodium carbenicillin, octenidine/carbenicillin and stoichiometrically equivalent 1:1 octenidine dihydrochloride to disodium carbenicillin were assessed using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay for N. gonorrhoeae (ATCC 49226) and three clinical isolates. Predictive permeability using the Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay and cytotoxicity against HeLa cells was also evaluated.
Results: Additive in vitro antibacterial activities against N. gonorrhoeae were observed in this study, which suggests octenidine/carbenicillin could be a useful agent in reducing N. gonorrhoeae transmission and minimizing gonorrhoea infections.
Octenidine/carbenicillin also exhibited bioequivalence to azithromycin and doxycycline, two currently prescribed antibiotics. Likewise, octenidine/carbenicillin had improved predicted permeability compared with octenidine dihydrochloride.
Conclusions: Antimicrobial GUMBOS synthesized in this study could be used as an adjunctive treatment approach to current drug therapies for oropharyngeal gonorrhoea infection control and prevention.
SERS investigation and high sensitive detection of carbenicillin disodium drug on the Ag substrate.
The reliable and ultrasensitive detection of antibiotic drug residue is of great interest for environmental protection and human health. Herein, we propose a simple SERS strategy based on Ag nanoparticles (NPs) as substrate with the assistance of aggregation agent (MgSO4) for the SERS investigation and the high sensitive detection of antibiotic drug carbenicillin disodium (CBDM).
The density functional theory calculation was performed for the assignment and identification of Raman bands of the CBDM molecule. The results indicate that the CBDM molecule is close to the Ag NP substrate surface through the carboxyl group. The CBDM molecules on Ag NP substrate exhibit the largest SERS enhancement, when the concentration of MgSO4 is 1 × 10-2 mol/L and the pH value of CBDM solution is 6.
By this SERS method, the limit of detection of CBDM is 0.63 × 10-8 mol/L, which is lower than the standard of European Union for the maximum residue limit of antibiotic drug (1.2 × 10-8 mol/L). And, a quantitative detection method of CBDM can be established. There is a good linear relationship (R2 = 0.9908) in the concentration range of 1.0 × 10-8-1.0 × 10-3 mol/L.
It proves that the proposed SERS method is a simple, rapid (within 6 min), reliable and highly sensitive scheme with a good reproducibility for the detection of CBDM. And, the proposed SERS strategy can also be applied for the high sensitive detection and identification of other antibiotic drug (penicillin).
Mechanisms of RsaL mediated tolerance to ciprofloxacin and carbenicillin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
The Pseudomonas aeruginosa RsaL is a negative regulator of the quorum sensing signal synthesis gene lasI. The expression of RsaL is directly activated by the LasI cognate regulator LasR. Thus, RsaL and LasI-LasR (LasI/R) form a regulatory loop.
Further studies revealed that RsaL is a global regulator which controls the expression of numerous genes through quorum sensing system dependent and independent pathways. However, whether RsaL is involved in antibiotic tolerance remains elusive. In this study, we found that the mutation of rsaL increased bacterial tolerance to ciprofloxacin and carbenicillin.
Through motif search, gene expression analyses and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we found that RsaL directly represses the expression of the narK1K2GHJI operon, which is involved in the tolerance to ciprofloxacin. We further demonstrated that the narK1K2GHJI operon is directly regulated by LasR. In combination, our study revealed a novel operon under the control of the RsaL, LasI/R regulatory loop.